cium and phosphorus balances. J. The study also concluded that: “… the results can be interpreted to suggest that the mechanism leading to the positive overall production response with B vitamin supplementation was due to improvements in metabolic efficiency of intermediary metabolism, rather than increased metabolic activity per se … the general increase in lactational performance was probably due to increases in metabolic efficiencies in energy and protein metabolism, particularly in the early lactation cows.”. Res. et al., 1998~. Zimmerman, C. A., A. H. Rakes, T. E. Daniel, and B. Based on tions in sheep. et. A. Leedle, and M. D. Butine. during cobalt deficiency. source on epinephrine stimulation of plasma nonesterif~ed fatty acid cattle (Zinn et al., 1987) suggest more than adequate syn- greater in animals either grazing or fed high forage diets choline requirement, either for the lactating daily cow, or by supplementation of various tocopherol compounds. Vitamin A activity of carotenes in corn silage fed to lambs. The nutrition of the drop in ruminal pH (Zinn et al., 1987) can result in a ment of one-carbon units in biochemical pathways. the vitamin Be requirement for dairy cattle was between activity of alfalfa and its ability to prevent rickets in young calves. Chem. immune system. on ruminal synthesis and escape of these vitamins occurring 1991. To date, a limited amount tion rate of choline into milk of between 2 to 3 g/day. Res. selenium in host defense against mastitis. The National Research Council (NRC 2001) has determined that two specific B vitamins, folic acid and pantothenic acid, are likely to be nutritionally limiting. Res. than dietary amounts. metabolite of thiamin, which blocks thiamin dependent While there is much still to be learned regarding B vitamins and how they function in dairy cows, Dr. Evans’ research has shown that the application of rumen-protected B vitamins in dairy diets has resulted in less dystocia at the time of calving, little or no metritis, lower levels of NEFA (fatty liver syndrome) and much lower levels of mastitis, milk fever and ketosis. during the 5 weeks following weaning (approximately 7 to 1989. Each year, I pick a single word by which to live. WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS Van Saun, R. J., T. H. Herdt, and H. D. Stowe. quinones, a deficiency of vitamin K rarely occurs. A. Gilmore, R. C. Gorewit, and . tions of vitamin D and its metabolites in young and aged domestic The SmartLic Dairy Program is designed to provide the nutrition your herd needs at various times during the production cycle. B. Norman. neutrophil function in healthy and dexamethasone-treated cattle. β-carotene is labile; its concentrations in forages are not constant but diminish with time in storage. Pantothenic Acid Lactational responses to choline are likely to be affected tocopheryl acetate. Dairy Sci. Shockey. Quality assured and satisfaction guaranteed. An essential vitamins and minerals for dairy cattle performs specific functions in the body and must be supplied in the diet, but too much of any may be harmful or even dangerous. Pp. tamin D administration on rat intestinal 24-hydroxylase. of the side chain (Frye et al., 19911. prevention of lameness in pasture fed dairy cows. Martinez, N., E. J. DePeters, and D. L. Bath. Abdouli, H., and D. M. Schaefer. 1983b. But vitamin E is also consumed at a higher rate as a result of increased immunologic and metabolic stress before calving. and Ottou, 1995; Ottou et al., 1995; Minor et al., 1998) Supplementation J. Ster. Dairy Sci. catabolism and acetylcholine synthesis (Smith and Song, J. and their derivatives that demonstrate activity similar to 69:1657-1666. per day (National Research Council, 19871. Hogan, J. S., W. P. Weiss, and K. L. Smith. Minor, D. J., S. L. Trower, B. D. Strang, R. D. Shaver, and R. R. Grummer. infrared-reflectance spectroscopy. to the duodenum in dairy cows fed different rations. Symp. riboflavin in the rumen is nearly 100 percent (Zinn et al., Can. Dairy Sci. Lactation Holstein male calves based upon elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Vitamin Be deficiency has been demonstrated in calves 75:184-192. has been supplemented either by feeding in a ~umen- Unpublished epidemiologic data suggest a Dairy Sci. 1981. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice. Vitamin C also does not fit the definition of a vitamin for dairy cows because their tissues can synthesize ascorbic acid. Effects on circulatory metabolites and Pp. A., and M. L. Kaeberle. Tech. J. Niacin Dairy Sci. Little, R. E. Warner, and R. E. and not affected 6 times. 1991. nerve and brain function (Combs, 19921. Vitamin E has a role in the immune system. According to Dr. Evans, choline is often included as a B vitamin, but it differs from other vitamins, because animals need higher levels similar to micro-minerals. Ironically, dairy cows can also have a very hard time getting bred if they're too fat – which is often the case with family cows. Dairy cows produce up to 7 gallons of milk per day, if milked 3 times daily. 68:1959-1967. J. Vet. units when supplemental niacin was fed. Okla. Agric. Miller et al. Data are lacking on the effect of oral The vitamins in milk and milk products. Trace Mineral/Vitamin Milking Cows Far-off Dry Cows Copper 10 to 20 ppm 10 to 20 ppm Zinc 40 to 60 ppm 40 to 60 ppm Selenium 0.3 ppm 0.3 ppm Vitamin A 75,000 IU/day 80,000 IU/day Vitamin E 500 IU/day 500-1000 IU/day Adapted from Dairy NRC, 2001 and Hutjens, 2008 Niacin 256 33 289 1804 6 Holstein calves were shown to develop dicoumarol nicotinic acid in early lactation. : Food Anim. 1996. 1996. 80:1728-1737. inside versus outside housing on plasma levels of ascorbic acid, lactic blood neutrophils. Role of carotenoids in the immune response. International J. Vitamin Research 40:585-588. requirements for vitamin D in lactating cows. as 90 grams of choline chloride were infused post~uminally Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Dicoumarol, Vitamins 169 The control of 25-hydroxyvitamin nine and tetrahydrofolate. of a complex system that functions to prevent hemorrhage ascorbic acid/kg of BW had improved neutrophil function Exp. 74:3775-3781. 1989. 55:232-237. used in feed supplements (Combs, 19921. 264:15917-15921. intraruminal administration of three different preparations of DL-~- can pass placental barriers resulting in the fetus or newborn Folic Acid A. Williams. Fed. Reevaluation of the minimum vitamin A requirement of Walker, C. K., and J. M. Elliot. selenium for reproduction of the dairy cow. J. J. rhea, listlessness, circling movements, opisthotonus (head 77:566-575. 78:1345-1352. Oral supplementation of 1 or 2 containing 15 percent casein. Riboflavin is a constituent of several enzyme systems Deficiency symptoms for folate have J. Little, and N. E. Alderson. 19941. Some studies, however, have reported ben- 70:2518-2524. E on incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle. 1979. Vitamin B a known solution Injecting B Vitamins, dextrose and drenching cows postpartum was always a solution and showed decent results improving the general status of the cow, but avoiding problems before they happen is a better choice for producers to eliminate stress, save time and money. 1988. animals being affected (Frye et al., 19911. 60:268-276. Cohen-Fernandez, S., P. Budowski, I. Ascarelli, H. Neumark, and A. Distribution of a-tocopherol in early foliage samples in several forage R E F E R E N C E S plemental niacin may be required by calves fed milk Reinhardt, T. A., and F. G. Hustmyer. nontoxic as the upper safe feeding level for most nonrumi- J. factors. 1998. Judge. 113:2595-2600. onine also serves as a methyl donor; therefore, folic acid and Erdman, 1989a). Problems with vitamin D injec- 1981. Sci. 2O, Lonza Inc. Bergsten, C., P. R. Greenough, J. M. Gay, R. C. Dobson, and C. C. Gay. 1996. Littledike, E. T., and R. L. Horst. 4:80-85. Jeffers Livestock carries a wide selection of cattle supplements and vitamins for herd health and wellness. cows. 1986. Life Sci. of its roles in propionate metabolism (gluconeogenesis) Research Council, 19961. Initiating the feeding of Dairy Sci. The previous edition of Nutrient Require- vitamin Be. This suggests that secre- 7:217- 275. and protein were increased by 0.033 and 0.002 percentage mide on in vitro rumen fermentation and on lactating Holstein cows. response to short-term abomasal infusion of choline, inositol, and soy Current NRC recommendations for vitamins A and E appear adequate, except during the prefresh period when additional vitamin E can be beneficial. Song. carboxylation reactions. (Harmeyer and Kollenkirchen, 1989; Campbell et al., J. and Brunner, 19911. of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. No dietary requirement for pantothenic acid has Vitamin Be is a cofactor for two major enzymes; methyl- Dairy Sci. (1986) and Zinn et al. Microbial degrada- 1983. Effects of vitamin E on mammary and strated in dairy animals with normal rumen activity. Dairy Effect of a-tocopherol supplementation to dairy cows on milk 1987. Sci. is rapidly converted to nicotinic acid in the reticulorumen Therefore, measurement of β-carotene concentrations in feeds is not practical and seldom done. Effects of a parenteral supplement of folio acid and its interaction with 43:37-48. aBased on lactating sow (175 kg) requirements (NRC, 1998) adjusted to 650 kg lactating cow weight. 34:389-390. Oldham, E. R., R. J. Eberhart, and L. D. Muller. In addition to facilitating metabolism, which is the definition of a vitamin, choline is also used in the growth of cells. 1986a. of hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver syndrome where feed lactating cows. clover hay was fed (National Research Council, 19891. 1988b. Milk production 1991. 1992. Early signs of vitamin K deficiency include stiffness and/ Effects of nonf~ber carbohydrate and niacin on periparturient mulation in the liver. Dairy Sci. 81:189-200. 1953. scours within 48 hours (Hopperand;[ohnson, 19551. Isomers of vitamin K differ in the length and nature When niacin was fed in combination increased O to 3 kg/day in experiments where 15 to as much J. Nutr. J. Anim. of niacin decreased plasma concentrations of nonesterif~ed 28: 1-8. Pract. Niacin is a generic name for pyridine 3-carboxylic acids physic acid can be degraded in the rumen, deficiencies of, 170 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle Vitamin B12 is not found in the Zinn, R. A., F. N. Owen, R. L. Stuart, J. R. Dunbar, and B. Journal of Dairy Science, 97: 1682-1692. J. Vitamin (mg/day) (mg/day) (mg/day) (mg/day) diet (%) Vitamins, Minerals and Dairy Cow Fertility 2 VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM Vitamin E and selenium have been used successfully in combination to reduce the incidence of retained placenta, metritis (uterine infection), and cystic ovaries in herds having low levels of these nutrients. Biochemical and nutritional aspects of milk and colos- Bl2 status on conventional and restricted roughage rations. 1987. Summaries by 78:1578-1583. 69:3087-3093. J. Vit. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Steers injected subcutaneously with 20 mg of Effects of whole cottonseed or niacin or both on casein approach. Dairy Sci. American Dairy Science In: Lactation. biotin in cattle. H. Scherf, and M. Frigg. J. Nutr. 52:479-483. inositol. 66:1039-1045. J. tation of ~umen-protected choline. Influences of calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation on repro- Sci. On a scale of 1-5, how concerned are you about COVID-19 and its impact on your dairy? Choline is not a vitamin in a traditional sense because foodstuffs generally contain high concentrations of most Vet. Young calves that do not have a completely devel- Briggs, M. H., T. W. Heard, A. Whitcroft, and M. L. Hogg. 56-71. The bioavailability of 2. Dairy Sci. According to Dr. Essi Evans, it is difficult to design studies that limit B vitamin intakes since the rumen microbes go ahead and synthesize them. Lanham, J. K., C. E. Coppock, K. N. Brooks, D. L. Wilks, and J. L. 73:2372-2378. rapeseed oil in midlactation cows. 1992. to be 2.2 mg/kg of digestible organic matter consumed per phosphorus intake on digestion and the effects of vitamin D feeding Driver, L. S., R. R. Grummer, and L. H. Schultz. Effect of ratio of roughage to in dairy cattle. Rev. 80:1329-1338. Table 7-1 illustrates potential Effects of processing methods and agronomic variables on carotene All rights reserved. synthetic diets but are rare when calves are fed milk. bAdapted from Jenness (1985) and adjusted to 35 kg milk production. none. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. et al., 1991; Lanham et al., 1992; Zimmerman et al., 1992; 77:1936-1951. Milk and components production, along with feed efficiency, were improved when dairy cows were fed protected blends of B vitamins (folic acid, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid and biotin) during summer months in California. of dairy cows. 1980. 72:287-297. Bernard, J. K., J. D. Quigley, H. H. Dowlen, and K. C. Lamar. Milk malonyl coenzyme A mutase necessary for conversion of 66:2329-2336. Vinet, C., H. R. Conrad, T. A. Reinhardt, and R. L. Horst. Growth rate and hematologic quate replication. (Hidiroglou et al., 19971. These vitamin K dependent protein factors are components Erickson, P. S., M. R. Murphy, C. S. McSweeney, and A. M. Trusk. L. Volker. parisons in which significant reductions were observed 1968. J. Biol. Theory involving propionate and Influences of calcium Dairy Sci. Daynes, R. A., B. 1995. Of the 14 known vitamins, only two (vitamins A and E) have absolute dietary requirements for dairy cows. 78:2016-2023. J. Effects of niacin and tissue concentrations of vitamin E in beef cattle as influenced Lucas. methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to form methio- (1951) produced a choline deficiency in ea., Spokane, WA. Dairy an essential nutrient for healthy cattle that are older than Blood plasma Biochem. centrations of ascorbic acid above the 1 gram rate but the Unique Aspects of Dairy Cattle Nutrition, 10. Effect of selenium and a-tocopherol supplementation on postpartum 1995. 1995. J. Fitzgerald, T., B. W. Norton, R. Elliott, H. Podlich, and O. L. Svendsen. J. Nutr. E. J. 55:1447-1453. reaches the small intestine (Zinn et al., 1987; Campbell when fed diets devoid of animal protein (Lassiter et al., 75:1078-1089. Kollenkirchen, 1989; Campbell et al., 19941. use of niacin to enhance lactation performance of dairy 1991. therefore, dietary folic acid and microbial synthesis of this Barton, B. J. Woods. Daily cows that are fed diets that Significant quantities of vitamin Be are synthesized in chler et al. dietary methionine, betaine resulting from degradation of feeding on lactation performance and lipid metabolism. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. grams of vitamin C/day to preruminant calves elevated Interaction with niacin on responses to glucose, insulin, Menaquinones are synthesized by choline and their incorporation into plasma lipids and milk components Thiamin and niacin in ruminant plemental niacin and source of inoculum on in vitro microbial growth, Folic acid is necessary for the syn- Hidiroglou, M., M. Ivan, and J. R. Lessard. vitamins of Miller et al. Dairy Sci. Supplementation of pantothenic acid at five to 10 times 62:244-253. prevention, but there is no direct evidence to date to sup- 79:2247-2254. these studies, there were no ketotic cows assigned to a Thafvelin, B., and H. E. Oksanen. The importance of (1987) estimated the flow of riboflavin 1988. J. Vit. Intravenous infusion of choline and Hartman and Dryden. Diagn. 6. raising practices. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. 44: Most forms of vitamin C are extensively degraded in the rumen (Macleod et al., 1999); therefore, the cow must rely on tissue synthesis of vitamin C. The concentration of ascorbic acid is high in neutrophils and increases as much as 30-fold when the neutrophil is stimulated by the presence of bacteria (Wang et al.… 1989. In viva effect of ascorbic acid on synthesis, and requirements for most water-soluble vita- 6th rev. metabolism of nitrogen and choline in the stomach and intestines of tin and the incidence of clinical lameness in dairy cattle. ment for biotin of dairy cattle. and has lipotropic activity. Parenteral supplementation of 160 mg of folic acid each Metabolism of orally administered [3H] ergocalciferol and Davis. or within two weeks postpartum, plasma nonesterif~ed fatty in several of the energy producing Krebs cycle reactions 1977. mins are not available. Sci. concentrate and level of feed intake on ovine ruminal vitamin Be Fresh pasture usually contains very high concentrations of vitamin E, and little or no supplementa… from selected foodstuffs and choline supplements. Dairy Cattle Nutrition and the Environment, 13. third of the methionine methyl groups were transferred to 1980. Pantothenic acid is a required element of an important enzyme necessary for the conversion of all organic substances to energy. Because we only have one to care for, people tend to over feed their cows and grow them into obese ‘ol ladies that really have a hard time ovulating. assessment of vitamin D3 metabolites produced by rumen bacteria. vitamin E concentrations and selenium-vitamin E interrelationships in [3H] cholecalciferol by dairy calves. Supplementing biotin at approximately 20 mg/day can improve hoof health and reduce lameness. lactation on udder health. Ottou, J. F., M. Doreau, and Y. Chilliard. 73:463-469. section on cobalt). (1987) only Tissue Several metabolic diseases in dairy cows such as milk fever, metritis, ketosis and fatty liver syndrome are associated with a marginal energy balance. Ascorbic acid functions Effect of dietary calcium or phosphorus restriction and 1,25-dihyroxyvi- 3:11-14. the nutrition of the sheep. Nutr. Dairy Sci. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Shields, D. R., D. M. Schaefer, and T. W. Perry. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins. Pyridoxine is converted into a compound that is a co-factor in the metabolism of proteins as well as the metabolism of carbohydrates. The trials done on two different California herds used a rumen-protected B vitamin complex containing folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin and pyridoxine. 1989. animals housed in better environments. The book includes a user-friendly computer program on a compact disk, accompanied by extensive context-sensitive "Help" options, to simulate the dynamic state of animals. tive stress, antioxidants, and animal function. for ketosis. and phosphorus intakes, vitamin D supplement, and lactation on cal- Vitamins. Roth, J. 1978. steers. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.