definition of peptic ulcer disease

Long-term use of NSAIDs can cause peptic ulcer disease. Health Information Center, Phone: +1-800-860-8747 TTY: +1-866-569-1162, Email: healthinfo@niddk.nih.gov Assess pain by obtaining a history of the onset, duration, and characteristics in relation to food intake and medications. Peptic ulcer: An ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus.Peptic ulcers affect millions of people in the US yearly. Refer patients with significant weight loss to a dietitian. An “ulcer” is an open sore. A stomach disorder marked by corrosion of the stomach lining due to the acid in the digestive juices. A break in the mucosal lining of the stomach or duodenum more than 5 mm in diameter, with depth to the submucosa. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, while one in the first part of the intestines is a duodenal ulcer. Hemorrhage occurs in 15% of patients with duodenal ulcers and occurs more frequently in patients with NSAID-associated ulcers who have no prior symptoms. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity, which occurs in 6% of patients, happens when the ulcer erodes through the entire thickness of the gastric or duodenal wall. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine. There is no evidence that bland or soft diets reduce gastric acid, promote healing, or relieve symptoms. . After a Billroth II surgical procedure, the patient may develop symptoms of the dumping syndrome. During the first 6 months of follow-up among patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, 31% of patients who discontinued aspirin therapy experienced an acute cardiovascular event or death compared to 8% of patients who continued aspirin therapy (. Duodenal ulcers occur in approximately 10% of the population at some time in their lives. Associated diseases include hyperparathyroidism, chronic lung disease, and alcoholic cirrhosis. Chapter 3: Infection Diseases Related to Travel. Feeling of fullness, bloating or belching 3. Most patients do not require surgery. Discuss the patient’s concerns openly. Hours: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time, M-F. NIH staff guidance on coronavirus (NIH Only): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, https://employees.nih.gov/pages/coronavirus. On inspection, you may note pale mucous membranes and skin because of anemia from acute or chronic blood loss. 1. [5] Del Valle J. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. (Original Articles), Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-negative and -positive peptic ulcer disease, Reduce Risk of Stomach Ulcers and Gastritis. Peptic Ulcer Disease in Helicobacter Pylori-Infected Children: Clinical Findings and Mucosal Immune Response. are age 70 or older; are female; are taking more than two types of NSAIDs or have taken NSAIDs regularly for a long time; have had a peptic ulcer before Involve the family or significant others in these discussions and plans to gain their support. NSAIDs now account for > 50% of peptic ulcers. During auscultation, you may note that bowel sounds are hyperactive initially but diminish because of a paralytic ileus with ulcer perforation and peritonitis. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The current treatment is to eliminate foods that cause discomfort and symptoms. 2012;18(17):2105–2111. Gastric and duodenal ulcers usually cannot be differentiated based on history alone, although some findings may be suggestive (see DDx). World Journal of Gastroenterology. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov. Instruct the patient to avoid alcohol, coffee, and other caffeine-containing beverages. Temporal trends and geographical variations of, A total of 1139 autopsy cases was investigated prospectively during the 12-month study period, and 12 nonconsecutive fatalities resulting from, pylori, protecting the vulnerable stomach lining, quelling inflammation caused by gastritis and, Sources of samples used in this study Source of samples Number of Sample samples code Healthy persons (n=30) * Saliva samples 30 -- Gastroduodenal patients (n=25) * Non-ulcer disease (NUD) 20 -- *, When we talk about the incidence of peptic ulcer in asthma and COPD group of patients, our study revealed 39 COPD patients having peptic ulcer while only 7 asthmatic patients had, Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of chronic gastritis and, He displayed psychomotor agitation, confusion, flushed and warmed skin, urinary retention, dry mouth and dilated pupils within 3 hours of ingesting of a plant, Atropa belladonna, which has been used as a traditional folk remedy for relieving, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Trends in hospitalizations for peptic ulcer disease, United States, 1998-2005, Contribution of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to deaths associated with peptic ulcer disease: a prospective toxicological analysis of autopsy blood samples. Encourage the patient to avoid aspirin and other NSAIDs for aches and pains and suggest alternatives, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol). Discuss possible complications of peptic ulcer disease as it progresses: hemorrhage, perforation, and obstruction because of repeated ulcerations and scarring. Researchers have not been able to establish a characteristic duodenal ulcer personality. Acute gastric dilation occurs in the postoperative period when dilation of the stomach causes reflex hypotension, pain, and tachycardia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Some patients have black or tarry stools. In: Yamada T, ed. The Helicobacter pylori bacterium, the principal causative agent of type B chronic gastritis, is also thought to be a major cause of peptic ulcers. Accessed July 31, 2014. Marginal ulcers are those that develop where gastric acids contact the operative site, usually at the site of anastomosis. H pylori can be stubborn. Patients may describe pain as sharp, burning, or gnawing, or it may be achy and perceived as abdominal pressure. First is a definition of peptic ulcer and its types. Pain with duodenal ulcer occurs from 90 minutes to 3 hours after eating, is relieved with food or antacids, and may awaken a person at night. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishing; 2009: 982–1002. Normally, a thick layer of mucus protects the stomach lining from the effect of its digestive juices. In developed nations, the incidence of peptic ulcer disease is decreasing with the recognition of the role of H. pylori bacteria in its development. Your doctor may recommend tests to determine whether the bacterium H. pylori is present in your body. Stomach ulcers, also known as gastric ulcers, are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach. He or she may look for H. pylori using a blood, stool or breath test. Palpation in the midline may reveal epigastric tenderness. However, in the event of the primary complications of hemorrhage, perforation, or obstruction, surgery may be necessary. Explain why elimination of smoking facilitates healing and reduces recurrence. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts. It is Your chance of having a peptic ulcer caused by NSAIDs, also called an NSAID-induced peptic ulcer, is increased if you. Most of the time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer. 1. The ulcer represents the development of a circumscribed defect in the gastric or duodenal mucosa that is exposed to acid and pepsin secretion. Teach the patient how to control the problems with the following suggestions: (1) Take fluids only between meals and none with meals; (2) eat smaller amounts more frequently in a semirecumbent position; (3) eat a low-carbohydrate diet, concentrating on high-protein and moderate-fat foods; (4) avoid refined sugars (sweets); (5) lie down after meals for 30 minutes; (6) take anticholinergic drugs 30 minutes before meals as prescribed; and (7) reinforce the need to stop smoking to promote healing and prevent recurrence. [4] Metz DC. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the inner lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus. Ulcers can also occur in part of the intestine just beyond the stomach. Stomach acid makes the pain worse, as does having an empty stomach. Advise the patient that recurrence is greater than 50% with noncompliance. Peptic ulcer disease. Types of Peptic Ulcer Disease: There are mainly two types of peptic ulcers. Determine the foods that aggravate the symptoms. Perry S, Sanchez Md, Yang S, et al. Maintenance drug therapy is indicated for at least 1 year for patients with frequent recurrences. Mortality with gastric ulcer perforation is three times greater than that with duodenal ulcer perforation, partly because of the increased age of the patients. A polymorphism in the interferon-gamma receptor-1 gene (IFNGR1) is associated with an increased likelihood of H. pylori infection. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as. Peptic ulcer disease is a common term for ulcers that occur either in the stomach or upper part of the small intestine. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Chronic stress and anxiety, however, are believed to increase gastric secretions and may be factors in exacerbating ulcer recurrence. In order to detect an ulcer, your doctor may first take a medical history and perform a physical exam. Physical findings of epigastric or abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, tarry stools, bleeding, infection, presence of complications (hemorrhage, perforation, obstruction), Response to medication therapy, nutritional therapy, emotional/physical rest. Updated August 2013. However, milk is not an effective way to prevent or relieve a peptic ulcer. Put patient in contact with the Helicobacter Foundation (http://www.helico.com). (2013). The stomach is distensible and on a free mesentery, therefore, the Peptic ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. Peptic ulcer disease treatment. Your chance of having a peptic ulcer caused by NSAIDs, also called an NSAID-induced peptic ulcer, is increased if you, About 30 to 40 percent of people in the United States get an H. pylori infection.1 In most cases, the infection remains dormant, or quiet without signs or symptoms, for years. More than half of the people who have duodenal ulcers heal spontaneously but have a high incidence of recurrence within 2 years. Explain the relationship of gastric acidity, mucosal damage, and the significance of the symptoms of ulcer formation (pain, bleeding, nausea and vomiting, black stools). Other Drugs: Antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxide), prostaglandins. NSAIDs are a class of pain killers, such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Gastric ulcers are less common than duodenal ulcers and usually occur in the lesser curvature of the stomach within 1 inch of the pylorus. 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