iron thiocyanate hazards

Determination of iron(III) ions in samples of groundwater using a spectrometric method. Safety Phrases: S 13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs. Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. 1. Potassium Thiocyanate 333-20-0 < 0.2 Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Water, Deionized 7732-18-5 Balance Not Available Not Available Not Available Not Available Section 3: Hazard Identification Emergency Overview: Non-flammable, non-toxic, non-corrosive. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. x�\m��Fr��_ї �,���f��|���d����6>�}��֮���j䵬$���S�]՜��i�m��!Y�����;�������;��0������fk>�z_���M��}�T�u���DzDZ5�s���ߚ�oL��泛�������l���\��>�_�O�?�~�(����������|q��>Ģ�c9��F,��1�;s��������! In moderately acidic solution, iron(III) ions reacts with thiocyanate (rhodanide) ions SCN-to give red-brown, intensely coloured complex compounds. Potassium thiocyanate is a potential health threat if it comes in contact with the body. Nitric acid (HNO 3) is corrosive and can cause burns. 1762-95-4 Ammonium thiocyanate 100 Section 3 - Hazards Identification Emergency Overview Appearance: White crystalline powder. In the case of a spill, wash the affected area for 15 minutes. Hazards: Always were PPE when conducting demonstrations. 9H2O per 100 mL DI water), Safety sheet/container for overhead projector. R 52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. %PDF-1.3 : SI124-100; SI124-500 Synonyms No information available Recommended Use Laboratory chemicals. Calculate and record in lab notebook the [FeSCN2+] in each solution and its absorbance. To this solution, add 25 mL of deionized water, again using a clean graduated cylinder. R 32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. iron thiocyanate complex on the other hand exists an equilibrium which can be described by the following simplifying conversion formula (reaction equation): [fe(h 2o) 6] 3+ + 3 scn– r [fe(h 2o) 3(scn) 3] + 3 h 2o. Identification Product Name Iron, reference standard solution 1000 ppm Cat No. Uses advised against Food, drug, pesticide or biocidal product use Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Determination of iron(III) ions in samples of groundwater using a spectrometric method. ©CLEAPSS 2019 Student safety sheets 38 Iron and its compounds including Iron(II) and iron(III) oxides, carbonates, sulfates(VI), chlorides, bromide Note: iron(II) compounds are often called ferrous and iron(III) compounds ferric S 50A Do not mix with acids. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Hazard Symbols: XN Risk Phrases: R 20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. To this solution, add 25 mL of deionized water, again using a clean graduated cylinder. R 32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Be sure to take into account the dilution that occurs when the solutions Identification Product Name Iron, reference standard solution 1000 ppm Cat No. What things are not compared to Iron(III) thiocyanate? : A709; A709-3; A709-500 CAS-No 1762-95-4 Synonyms Ammonium rhodanate; Thiocyanic acid; ammonium salt Recommended Use Laboratory chemicals. Safety Data Sheet according to 29CFR1910/1200 and GHS Rev. I work for a theatre company that is doing a production involving lots of blood. Ammonium Thiocyanate and at the end of the workshift. Potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) is moderately toxic by ingestion; emits toxic fumes of cyanide if strongly heated or in contact with concentrated acids. Causes burns by all exposure routes. Iron(III) chloride react with potassium thiocyanate to produce hexathiocyanatoferrate(III) chloride potassium and potassium chloride. The reaction is stepwise, so Fe(SCN) 2+, Fe(SCN) 2 + etc. Hazard Symbols: XN Risk Phrases: R 20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. The iron concentration in the plasma is slightly increased, but the iron-binding capacity is not exceeded. Non-corrosive in presence of glass. A new approach to the equilibrium study of iron(III) thiocyanates which accounts for the kinetic instability of the complexes particularly observable under high thiocyanate concentrations. Ammonium Thiocyanate, Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing Dispose of contents/container to … Combustible Dust Hazard: : May form combustible dust concentrations in air (during processing). Causes eye and skin irritation. I work for a theatre company that is doing a production involving lots of blood. * Post hazard and warning information in the work area. ܌e�U�����<0��SpDŦ��j0MWV�ǚ�� l���r��В��$@�j�!# Rlj�f65�2��j��ƺ�hVUo� R 52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Caution. In addition, as part of an ongoing education and training effort, communicate all information on the health and safety hazards of Ammonium Thiocyanate to potentially exposed workers. * Post hazard and warning information in the work area. use the micropipettes to measure these volumes. Potassium thiocyanate is a chemical that is skin and eye irritant and is highly toxic when ingested in a body. Place a petri dish on a clear plastic sheet or white plastic safety container on an overhead projector. R 32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas. Iron (II) Nitrate Fe(NO3)3 241.86 g/mol Skin and eye irritation; dangerous to certain organs Wear safety goggles, gloves, and lab coat Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or clothing. A process for treating effluent containing thiocyanate so as to reduce concentration of the thiocyanate within the effluent, including the steps of: acidifying the effluent to a pH less than 3.0; placing the acidified effluent in the presence of ferric iron; adsorbing and/or absorbing the thiocyanate with activated carbon. 615-030-00-5 EC No. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Thiocyanate shares its negative charge approximately equally between sulfur and nitrogen.As a consequence, thiocyanate can act as a nucleophile at either sulfur or nitrogen — it is an ambidentate ligand. stream Add a crystal of KSCN to the dish and do not stir. May be harmful if absorbed through skin or if inhaled. The equilibrium expression for the formation of iron(III) thiocyanate is as follows: Using a clean graduated cylinder, add 25 mL of 0.0020 M KSCN to a 100 mL beaker. 540-72-7 Sodium thiocyanate 100 Section 3 - Hazards Identification Emergency Overview Appearance: White crystalline powder Warning! 1).Thiocyanate at low concentrations inhibits iodide transport by increasing the velocity constant of … Hazard classification & labelling Hazard classification and labelling. up to Fe(SCN) 6 3-species form in the solution. Isothiocyanic acid, HNCS, is a Lewis acid whose free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for its 1:1 association with a variety of Lewis bases in carbon tetrachloride solution at 25°C have been reported. By complexing the available Fe3+ ions in the solution, NaHPO4 shift the reaction to the left. In moderately acidic solution, iron(III) ions reacts with thiocyanate (rhodanide) ions SCN-to give red-brown, intensely coloured complex compounds. DETERMINATION OF IRON IN GROUNDWATER Aim . The reaction is stepwise, so Fe(SCN) 2+, Fe(SCN) 2 + etc. Introduction . Note a darker colored area around this crystal. Product Identification Synonyms: Thiocyanic acid, compounded with guanidine (1:1); Guanidine monothiocyanate; Guanidium thiocyanate CAS No. Chemical Name: Iron (III) chloride %: 95-100 EINECS#: 231-729-4 -----Hazard Symbols: C Risk Phrases: 22 34 Section 3 - Hazards Identification EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Danger! The ‘Hazard classification and labelling’ section shows the hazards of a substance based on the standardised system of statements and pictograms established under the CLP (Classification Labelling and Packaging) Regulation. The comparison can distinguish its similarity and difference to the other things. May be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Iron nitrate shifts the above equation to the right, and so too does potassium thiocyanate. Direct eye contact will cause redness and a lot of pain. Thiocyanate formation from cyanidation of gold bearing ores is becoming a more common problem during gold processing. WGK (Water Danger/Protection) CAS# 1762-95-4: 1 Canada - DSL/NDSL And direct skin contact will cause irritation in the local areas. 4 0 obj Thiocyanate shares its negative charge approximately equally between sulfur and nitrogen.As a consequence, thiocyanate can act as a nucleophile at either sulfur or nitrogen — it is an ambidentate ligand. Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Ammonium Thiocyanate + Lead Nitrate may cause explosion 6. M��1,9�r& ��\��{��?2 ҆x�`cJ��qk��q�G y&. Harmful if swallowed. 206-370-1 Product Code S0001378 1.2 Relevant identified uses of the substances or mixture and uses advised against "�{���/���0_F�Z��U������(san�>�6;���O�3k�ͳk�P���]���3��yL&a�p�G��L�C��Ȍ�]�6�� 2'�)��� �:X�EX �^CS];f'"f�V�ʤ�VA�?�b_��;³���(��i�% Special Remarks on Reactivity: Incompatible with KClO3 and mixtures with Pb(NO3)2 [8] For safety management, use Hazcards and other resources on the CLEAPSS website. It is used in chemical analysis, in photography, as a fertilizer, and for many other uses. fmPGptNW�竝�n�E�ҿdn����MF��#�����E��\d�`)����We,���m��b���ʾ��!������|���f�T)M�^��Y:w%��K�'^1�;����P��D H�$-��X��h눷b8#�"�`�63iI���w�`�q,+�@������LJ?F�E��ʎ³p�{���p��fc����-fS~`"�Ԉ9�gJ�F��������~�2���㛮���Ƞ��������3�� ��Xl^ ���C)�c9 F���C�ٵ���� < �g=��s��k���"��O�U�����n~oބdvN�$6n�_3I�D�+���l���5���K�hQ,�,�`;�%��A�ɱ`�j��}��?���Ip���p78�N��"�Cb��F8+@�)M�y&��Z[�̠ٴ�:ѿ�pO���L��Q�D���K�{n�H$�L*Y[���mP 騪 SAFETY DATA SHEET Creation Date 02-Nov-2009 Revision Date 25-Apr-2019 Revision Number 6 1. The mixture is refluxed for 24 h. l�i�:o`�{����FK�k��l�������9�ؐ�õ� ��S�5>/B�a��a�?�'�-����ܿ�K�����C|E|�����,ǂNuЩBHEUY;D�X2� �|���? Iron(III) nitrate (Fe(NO 3) 3) is a strong oxidizer; skin and tissue irritant. then carefully add enough deionized h2o to bring the final volume experiment 8 determination of an equilibrium constant tlier's principle, this high Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture: Combustion products may include carbon oxides or other toxic vapors.Thermal decomposition can lead to release of irritating gases and vapors.Avoid generating dust; fine dust dispersed in air in sufficient It is soluble in water. Student Safety Sheets are teaching materials. The salts are composed of the thiocyanate ion (− SCN) and a suitable metal cation (e.g., potassium thiocyanate, KSCN). ��F���q��FCJ�I�{Ä��R.3�K��W;��s��S��R�vkH-�2�:���v���zGF;� ���X�9]����Р�oLg��s Contact with acids liberates hydrogen cyanide, a very toxic, flammable gas or liquid. Iron(III) thiocyanate, Fe(SCN) 2+ is a complex ion formed in situ and the concentration is dependent upon the state of equilibrium, which is mostly shown qualitatively rather than quantitatively. Contact with acids liberates hydrogen cyanide, a very toxic, flammable gas or liquid. A new approach to the equilibrium study of iron(III) thiocyanates which accounts for the kinetic instability of the complexes particularly observable under high thiocyanate concentrations. Return the demonstration to the storeroom, where the waste will be collected and disposed of through EH&S. MERCURY THIOCYANATE decomposes into its elements at about 165°C. Contact with combustible material may cause fire.Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). Handling, Storage, and Precautions:metal thiocyanates on heating to decomposition, or on contact with acid or acid fumes, emit highly toxic fumes. Product Identification Synonyms: Thiocyanic acid, compounded with guanidine (1:1); Guanidine monothiocyanate; Guanidium thiocyanate CAS No. Determination of iron by thiocyanate colorimetry Use this method if you do not have access to a colorimeter. GHS Hazard Statements: H300: Fatal if swallowed [Danger Acute toxicity, oral] H312: Harmful in contact with skin [Warning Acute toxicity, dermal] H330: Fatal if inhaled [Danger Acute toxicity, inhalation] H373 **: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure] Kc Of Iron Thiocyanate Lab Report.pdf iron-thiocyanate solution containing 1.00 ml of 0.200 m fe(no 3)3 and 2.00 ml of 0.00200 m kncs. Have questions or comments? [SCN] − can also bridge two (M−SCN−M) or even three metals (>SCN− or −SCN<). Causes eye and skin irritation. 7782­61­8 Iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate, reagent ACS unlisted Hazard Symbols: XI O Risk Phrases: 36/37/38 8 Section 3 ­ Hazards Identification EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Safety Concerns: Potassium Thiocyanate and Iron III (ferric) Nitrate. Always were PPE when conducting demonstrations. Do not store with oxidizer Potassium thiocyanate KSCN 97.181 g/mol Eye, skin, inhalation, and ingestion Wear safety goggles, gloves, and lab coat Iron(III)-Ions (yellow) form the dark red complex Fe(SCN)3 if dropped into a a solution of Ammonium thiocyanate (or any other soluble Thiocyanate salt). Chemical reaction. kc iron thiocyanate equation - sinuous-moment-94516 kc iron thiocyanate equation can be acquired on the online library. In addition, as part of an ongoing education and training effort, communicate all information on the health and safety hazards of Ammonium Thiocyanate to potentially exposed workers. : SI124-100; SI124-500 Synonyms No information available Recommended Use Laboratory chemicals. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Contact with acids liberates toxic gas. https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FUniversity_of_California_Davis%2FUCDemos%2FEquilibriumIron_thiocyanate, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Potassium thiocyanate is a potential health threat if it comes in contact with the body. SAFETY DATA SHEET Creation Date 02-Nov-2009 Revision Date 25-Apr-2019 Revision Number 6 1. Safety Concerns: Potassium Thiocyanate and Iron III (ferric) Nitrate. Safety Phrases: S 36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. Balancing chemical equations. Iron(III) Thiocyanate ... Preparative Method: the reagent is prepared and used in situ, via dropwise addition of a mixture of iron(III) ammonium sulfate (6 equiv) and potassium thiocyanate (18 equiv) in water to a solution of organoborane in THF. Similarly, the addition of excess thiocyanate also causes a shift of the equilibrium to the product side. Potassium Thiocyanate (333 -20 -0) Listed on the United States TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) inventory SARA Section 311/312 Hazard Classes Immediate (acute) health hazard All components of this product are listed, or excluded from listing, on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory Harmful if swallowed. This demonstration operates on the following reaction: The local additions of either ferric ions or thiocyanate ions will each provide local color intensities by shifting the equilibrium. The esters of thiocyanic acid have the general structure R–SCN. separate 500 mL volumetric flasks, pipetting in 20, 30, 40 and 50 mL of 0.001 mol L−1 Fe3+ solution in turn, to obtain 4, 6, 8 and 10 × 10−5 mol L−1 solutions respectively. Inorganica Chimica Acta 2016 , 445 , 155-159. Potassium Thiocyanate (333 -20 -0) Listed on the United States TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) inventory SARA Section 311/312 Hazard Classes Immediate (acute) health hazard All components of this product are listed, or excluded from listing, on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory DETERMINATION OF IRON IN GROUNDWATER Aim . Iron(III) thiocyanate can be compared to the things which differ from it. 7782­61­8 Iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate, reagent ACS unlisted Hazard Symbols: XI O Risk Phrases: 36/37/38 8 Section 3 ­ Hazards Identification EMERGENCY OVERVIEW Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Health Hazard Data of the Chemical. Nothing can be compared to Iron(III) thiocyanate if Iron(III) thiocyanate cannot exhibit comparability. Cover the bottom of the petri dish with the KSCN solution. Legal. [SCN] − can also bridge two (M−SCN−M) or even three metals (>SCN− or −SCN<). Extremely corrosive in presence of copper, brass, iron. A process for treating effluent containing thiocyanate so as to reduce concentration of the thiocyanate within the effluent, including the steps of: acidifying the effluent to a pH less than 3.0; placing the acidified effluent in the presence of ferric iron; adsorbing and/or absorbing the thiocyanate with activated carbon. Contact with combustible material may cause fire.Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). Ammonium Thiocyanate, Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing Dispose of contents/container to … Combustible Dust Hazard: : May form combustible dust concentrations in air (during processing). Guanidine thiocyanate Revision Date 22-May-2019 U.S. Federal Regulations SARA 313 Not applicable SARA 311/312 Hazard CategoriesSee section 2 for more information CWA (Clean Water Act) Not applicable Clean Air Act Not applicable OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration Organic thiocyanates have low acute toxicity, but prolonged absorption may produce skin eruptions, running nose, nausea, and vomiting. %��������� Safety Phrases: S 13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs. Inorganica Chimica Acta 2016 , 445 , 155-159. ©CLEAPSS 2019 Student safety sheets 38 Iron and its compounds including Iron(II) and iron(III) oxides, carbonates, sulfates(VI), chlorides, bromide Note: iron(II) compounds are often called ferrous and iron(III) compounds ferric We came across this reaction involving Potassium Thiocyanate and Iron III (ferric) Nitrate that creates a fantastic blood effect seemingly out of nowhere. By complexing the available Fe 3+ ions in the solution, NaHPO 4 shift the reaction to the left. Burns readily in air to generate a coil of cohesive ash resembling a serpent (hence used in a firework: Pharaoh's serpents). The primary hazard is the threat posed to the environment. Student Safety Sheets are teaching materials. May cause adverse reproductive effects based upon animal studies. The infusion of 0.75 mg/kg/h sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 40 h in rabbits leads to a significant rise of the plasma thiocyanate concentration, irrespective of whether SNP was infused alone or in combination with sodium thiosulphate (ST). 1. Hazard Symbols: XN Risk Phrases: R 20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Uses advised against Food, drug, pesticide or biocidal product use Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Because a large excess of Fe+3 is used, it is reasonable to assume that all of the SCN- is converted to FeSCN2+. 333-20-0 Index No. Connectivity Edit 1762-95-4 Ammonium thiocyanate 100 Section 3 - Hazards Identification Emergency Overview Appearance: White crystalline powder. More iron thiocyanate complex has to be formed in order to use up this extra reactant (along with the other reactant thiocyanate) and re-establish the equilibrium. 4-5 Determination of an Equilibrium Constant for the Iron(III) Thiocyanate Reaction Calculations for Part A 1. Safety goggles and aprons must be worn at all times. Uses advised against Not for food, drug, pesticide or biocidal product use May cause liver and kidney damage. May cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation. The equilibrium expression for the formation of iron(III) thiocyanate is as follows: Using a clean graduated cylinder, add 25 mL of 0.0020 M KSCN to a 100 mL beaker. Ammonium Thiocyanate and at the end of the workshift. 3 Effective date : 12.16.2014 Page 1 of 7 Sodium Thiocyanate, Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com Potassium Thiocyanate Section 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company / undertaking 1.1 Product Identifier Product Name Potassium Thiocyanate Other Names CAS No. '�Qܜ�g�%�p��g7��]�yv����#�zk�$��6^4� �yxu��� ��k̐{1���[��ڽ�&����w��~A����-g]i���$RB�D�e�h���i����Z��� Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid [Merck]. Introduction . SAFETY DATA SHEET Creation Date 24-Nov-2010 Revision Date 18-Jan-2018 Revision Number 3 1. May be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Iron(III) chloride react with potassium thiocyanate to produce hexathiocyanatoferrate(III) chloride potassium and potassium chloride. 540-72-7 Sodium thiocyanate 100 Section 3 - Hazards Identification Emergency Overview Appearance: White crystalline powder Warning! Thiocyanate and thiocyanate-like compounds primarily inhibit the iodine-concentrating mechanism of the thyroid, and their goitrogenic activity can be overcome by iodine administration (Fig. May cause mild irritation to the skin and eyes. Ammonium thiocyanate is a colorless crystalline solid. May be harmful if absorbed through skin or if inhaled. Iron nitrate shifts the above equation to the right, and so too does potassium thiocyanate. PDF | On Oct 1, 2015, S L Budaev and others published Degradation of thiocyanate in aqueous solution by persulfate activated ferric ion | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Swells up to many times its original volume if heated (USCG, 1999). Disposal: up to Fe(SCN) 6 3-species form in the solution. Mercury thiocyanate without iron (III) is added to a solution with an unknown concentration of chloride ions, forming a complex of the mercury thiocyanate and chloride ion that absorbs light at a 254 nm, allowing more accurate measurements of concentration than the aforementioned technique using iron. Causes respiratory tract irritation. Chemical reaction. Harmful if swallowed. Balancing chemical equations. Identification Product Name Ammonium thiocyanate (Certified ACS) Cat No. Iron(III)-Ions (yellow) form the dark red complex Fe(SCN)3 if dropped into a a solution of Ammonium thiocyanate (or any other soluble Thiocyanate salt). May cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation. We came across this reaction involving Potassium Thiocyanate and Iron III (ferric) Nitrate that creates a fantastic blood effect seemingly out of nowhere. For safety management, use Hazcards and other resources on the CLEAPSS website. Caution. Liberates very toxic, flammable gas or liquid fire.Hygroscopic ( absorbs moisture from the air ) iron thiocyanate hazards... Absorbs moisture from the air ) Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs iron thiocyanate hazards ; SI124-500 No... Reaction is stepwise, so Fe ( SCN ) 2+, Fe SCN... Analysis, in photography, as a fertilizer, and 1413739 combustible material cause. In photography, as a fertilizer, and so too does potassium thiocyanate to produce hexathiocyanatoferrate ( III thiocyanate... Be worn at all times No 3 ) 3 ) is a strong ;... Respiratory tract irritation contact will cause redness and a lot of pain nitrate shifts the above to. Acquired on the CLEAPSS website a crystal of KSCN to the environment hazard and warning information in case! Suitable protective clothing and gloves iodide transport by increasing the velocity constant of … health hazard of. Liberates hydrogen cyanide, a very toxic gas excess of Fe+3 is used in chemical analysis in! 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Nahpo 4 shift the reaction to the right, and for many other uses spill, wash affected! Place a petri dish with the body hazard is the threat posed the! Cyanide, a very toxic gas common problem during gold processing Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Ammonium thiocyanate Section! Can also bridge two ( M−SCN−M ) or even three metals ( > SCN− or −SCN < ) acids very...

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